Women often worry about weight gain during pregnancy. However, if we understand the changes that occur in the body, we will understand that weight gain is a completely natural phenomenon.
Gynecologists say that for the normal course of pregnancy and the proper development of the fetus, the weight gain of a pregnant woman is a completely normal and expected phenomenon. Both insufficient and excessive weight gain is undesirable. It is unacceptable for a pregnant woman to artificially limit weight gain, let alone lose weight, try to lose weight by following low-calorie diets or interval meals, or increase physical activity in excess of those recommended by a doctor.
This can lead to disruption of the normal course of pregnancy, fetal hypotrophy and hypoxia, premature birth, insufficiency of the placenta and blood flow in the fetoplacental complex, the development of functional disorders in the gastrointestinal tract of a pregnant woman, anemia, protein, and various micronutrient deficiencies. What you need to know about the weight gain of the future mother, Doctor Peter was told by obstetrician-gynecologist Yulia Yanchevskaya. What is Added Weight?
During pregnancy, a woman's uterus weight increases from 50 g to 1-1.5 kg by the end of pregnancy. The mammary glands weight by about 500 g. The placenta (children's place) weighs about 500-600 g (up to 700 g) by the end of pregnancy the norm.
By the end of pregnancy, the volume of amniotic fluid (amniotic fluid) normally reaches 1-1.5 liters. The volume of blood circulating in the vascular bed of a pregnant woman increases by 1.5-1.7 liters by the end of the 3rd trimester.
The fetus itself at the time of delivery normally weighs an average of 3.5 kg (from 2.7 to 4.0 kg), and in the case of a large fetus - more than 4 kg. Fat must accumulate
Each pregnant woman gradually accumulates additional adipose tissue. This is a physiological, completely normal phenomenon that ensures the optimal development of the fetus, of course, if the woman has proper nutrition and physical activity. Normally, this can give an extra 3-4 kg, depending on the initial weight. Both excess body fat and insufficient are undesirable.
But in addition to fat, water is also retained. Fluid retention in the tissues of a pregnant woman - up to 1.5-2.8 kg. The tissues of the future mother, in principle, are prone to water retention and swelling. This is especially pronounced in the 3rd trimester. If dietary recommendations are not followed, eating sweet, salty, spicy, fatty foods, puffiness, and, accordingly, the weight will increase ahead of the expected weight gain.
For women with an initial body weight deficit (BMI less than 18), weight gain of 12.5-18 kg is considered normal.
With a normal BMI (18 - 24.9) - 11.5-16 kg.
With excess body weight (BMI 25 - 29.9) - 7-11.5 kg.
With obesity (BMI over 30) - 5-9 kg, with severe obesity - weight gain even less than 5 kg per pregnancy will be considered normal.
Where else do the "extra" kilograms come from
In the presence of multiple pregnancies, polyhydramnios, or a large fetus, the expected weight gain will be more than average standards. With twins, an average increase is considered to be 16-21 kg.
Weight is gaining unevenly: in the first half of pregnancy, a woman on average adds about 40%, and the remaining 60% - in the second half of pregnancy. In the first trimester of pregnancy, there may be no weight gain at all, or even weight loss is observed with severe early toxicosis in pregnant women. Or maybe three hundred, or maybe half a kilo!
In the second half of pregnancy, the increase occurs more actively. Normally, it should occur relatively smoothly, without sharp jumps, at 250-300 g per week, and in the third trimester - even at 400-500 g per week. Before the very birth, weight gain, as a rule, stops. Of course, all these norms are indicative and approximate, it is necessary to make an exception for the individual characteristics of a woman. If above normal: what does the doctor do?
When analyzing the dynamics of weight gain, the doctor must take into account the various nuances and characteristics of a particular woman. A sharp and rapid set may indicate fluid retention in the tissues, the appearance of so-called "hidden" edema, the onset of the development of late toxicosis in pregnant women, or the development of polyhydramnios (excessive accumulation of fluid in the fetal bladder). In order to understand the reasons, the obstetrician-gynecologist, in addition to weighing, measures the belly of the pregnant woman, evaluates blood pressure numbers, urine analysis (for the presence of protein and sugar), and ultrasound data.
Weighing a pregnant woman should be done regularly, preferably at the same time (in the morning), after emptying the bladder and intestines, in approximately the same clothes. How to eat right so as not to overeat
Nutrition of a pregnant woman should be fractional, 4-6 times a day, in small portions. The diet must be balanced so that it contains enough basic components, proteins, fats, and carbohydrates. In the first half of pregnancy, the daily diet should include about 200 g of meat, poultry, or fish, at least 500 g of dairy and sour milk products, 20 g of cheese, 1 egg, 500-600 g of vegetables, 200-300 g of fruits or berries.
In the second half of pregnancy, you need to reduce the number of carbohydrates and increase the protein content in the diet, exclude foods that provoke fluid retention in tissues and irritate the kidneys, and gastrointestinal tract, and limit fatty, salty, spicy, and smoked.
It is unacceptable to completely stop or severely limit physical activity during pregnancy, except in cases of medical contraindications. Keeping track of weight
But you can’t completely ignore the excess weight gain, attributing everything to your “pregnant state”. With excessive, pathological weight gain, pregnancy management by a competent obstetrician-gynecologist, consultation with an endocrinologist, identification and correction of possible disorders of fat and carbohydrate metabolism, and late toxicosis of pregnant women are required. It is imperative that the pregnant woman follow the recommended lifestyle, daily routine, and individual advice on nutrition and treatment.